Volume 1, Issue 1 (Fall 2019)                   Iran Herit 2019, 1(1): 10-18 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Omrani B, Pashaei Kamali F. Buddhism Architecture in Northwestern Iran. Iran Herit. 2019; 1 (1) :10-18
URL: http://ih.richt.ir/article-8-79-en.html
1- PhD in Archaeology, Head of the Research Center for Cultural Heritage Organization, Tehran, Iran , Behruz.omrani@gmail.com
2- PhD, Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran
Abstract:   (1711 Views)

Architecture is not only a complex including materials and methods to provide a shelter for human beings, but also it is an expression of the society, which created that. Its form will be the reflection of values and religious orientation besides social maturity of the related society and its structure will narrate the nature, power and different dimensions of mythical and psychological aspects of existing fabric. By the thirteenth century, Buddhism had receded into its far-eastern fringes, where it was really little more than memory. In the space of the hundreds of years from the 1220's - 1320's, the Mongols had conquered Iran, introducing new ideas and customs from Central Asia and the Far East. At the Ilkhanid capitals of northwestern Iran (Maraghe and Tabriz), different Mongol rulers adhered to different religions; some followed Mongol shamanist beliefs, others married Nestorian Christian women and had Christian leanings, and still some others converted to Buddhism. Considering the Buddhist background of northwestern Iran during Mongol's era and overlapping the historical contexts proclaiming the kings′ interests into Buddhism sect with spatial composition of Buddhist temples in Central Asia, this paper will categorize the Rasadkhana caves as well as Girkh Kohul caves both in Maraghe as the remains of Buddhism architecture in the Ilkhanid capital of Iran.  

Full-Text [PDF 810 kb]   (427 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (669 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Iran Heritage
Received: 2019/05/20 | Accepted: 2019/06/15 | Published: 2019/07/1

1. Soudavar, A., (1996). The Saga of Abu-Sa'id Bahador Khan: The Abu-Sa' idname," in Julian Raby and Teresa Fitzherbert, eds., The Court of the Ilkhans, 1290-1340 Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Martinez, A., (1994). Third Portion of the History of Ġāzān Xān in Rašīdu'd-Dīn's Ta'rīx-e Mobārak-e Ġāzānī', Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, 8. Pp. 99-206, at p. 111, n. 13.
3. Azad, A. (2010). Three Rock-Cut Cave Sites in Iran and their Ilkhanid Buddhist Aspects Reconsidered. United Kingdom: MPG Books Group. (Chapter10).
4. Boyle. J.A., (1968). Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 5. Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CHOL9780521069366]
5. Canby, Sh., (1993). Depictions of Buddha Sakyamuni in the Jami' al-Tavarikh and the Majma' al-Tavarikh. In Muqarnas X: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Margaret B. Sevcenko, ed. Leiden: E.J. Brill. [DOI:10.2307/1523195]
6. Charles, A., (1987). The encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 14. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Pp. 373-380.
7. Esin. E., (1972). Four Turkish Bakhshi Active in Iranian Lands, in M. Y. Kiani and A. Tajvidi, eds., The Memorial Volume of the 5th International Congress of Iranian Art & Archaeology: Tehran-Isfahan-Shiraz, 11th-18th April 1968 (Tehran), Vol, 2, 53-73.
8. Boyle. J., (1968). Dynastic and Political History of the Il-Khans. In J. A. Boyle, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CHOL9780521069366]
9. Li Chongfen. A., (2013). Cong Jiantuoluo dao Pingcheng: yi siyuan buju wei zhongxin" [From Gandhāra to Pingcheng: The Layout of a Free-Standing Buddhist Monastery]. In: Fojiao kaogu - cong Yindu dao Zhongguo I. [Buddhist Archaeology - From India to China], Li Chongfeng, 267-312. Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe
10. Ligun He. K., (2013). Buddhist State Monasteries in Early Medieval China and their Impact on East Asia. A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Philosophy of Heidelberg University in Candidate for the Degree of Philosophy. Germany: Institute of East Asian Art History.
11. Mullin, Gh. (2012). Mongolian Buddhism Past and Present: Reflections of Culture at a Historical Crossroad. In Bruce M. Knauft; R. Taupier; P. Lkham; Amgaabazaryn Gerelmaa; Mongolians after Socialism: Politics, economy, religious, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Admon Press, Pp. 185-197.
12. Papas. J., (2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. Journal of Central Eurasian Studies. Vol. 2. Pp. 101-104.
13. Polo. M., (1958). The Travels. Translated by Ronald Latham. London.
14. Qazvini, Z. I. M., (1994). Asar al Ebad va Akhbar al Ebad. Translated by Mirza Jahangir Qajar. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication.
15. Ronald M., (2002). Hidden Realms and Pure Abodes: Central Asian Buddhism as Frontier Religion in the Literature of India, Nepal, and Tibet," Pacific World Journal, 3d series, 4: 153-81, esp. 161, 164, 167.
16. Su Bai, E., (1996). Pingcheng shili de jiju he Yungang moshi de xingcheng he fazhan [Gathering of Manpower and Material Resources in Pingcheng and the Creation and Development of YunKang style]. In: Zhongguo shikusi yanji. [Studies on the Cave Temples of China]. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe.
17. Mair. V., (1992). Perso-Turkic Bakshi = Mandarin Po-Shih: Learned Doctor. Journal of Turkish Studies. 16 (3): 117-27.
18. Zhengzhong. W., (2004). Kezi'er shiku qian de mugou jianzhu [Wooden Construction in front of Kizil Caves]. 10 (9): 75-83.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.